|MILESAGO: Australasian Music & Popular Culture 1964-1975||Groups & Solo Artists|
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY QUARTET (18CQ)
Original lineup, 1964-65:
Hans Poulsen (vocals, guitars, bouzouki, mandolin, balalaika, banjo, bongos)
Ted Baarda (vocals, guitars, harmonica, clarinet, tambourine)
Ron Snellgrove (vocals, violin, guitar)
Dave Graham (acoustic bass) early 1964
Steve Dunstan (acoustic bass, piano, sarod, kalimba) late 1964-1965
Barry Duggan (flute, sax) - recording only
Second lineup, 1966-67:
Hans Poulsen (vocals, guitars, bouzouki, mandolin, balalaika, banjo, bongos) early 1966
Keith Glass (guitar, vocals)
John Pugh (violin, autoharp, guitar)
Frank Lyons (bass)
Dennis "Fred" Forster (drums)
Bob Lloyd (drums)
Randall Wilson (drums)
Julius Colman (violin) early 1967
Melbourne's Eighteenth Century Quartet was one of the most interesting and innovative Aussie bands of the mid-Sixties but a number of factors have combined to make it one of the most overlooked bands in Australia's pop History. Writing of them in his Encyclopedia of Australian Rock & Pop, Ian McFarlane described the band as: "... essentially a manufactured group, put together by promoter Ian Oshlak to capitalise on the American trend towards folk and baroque pop as practised by The Lovin' Spoonful ("Do You Believe in Magic?") and The Left Banke ("Walk Away Renee")".
This is accurate to an extent, but Ian's article only tells part of the story. To be fair, at the time that his Encyclopedia was published, almost nothing was known of the early History of 18CQ. Fortunately, since then, founder member Ted Baarda and later member Keith Glass have both published recollections of their time with the group. This has helped to build up a much more complete History of the band, and we are indebted to Ted and Keith for recording their invaluable memories of this pioneering group.
We now know that, like several other notable Aussie groups of this period -- e.g. The Groop and The Missing Links -- there were in fact two completely different versions of 18CQ. The first version of the band (1964-65), was founded and led during 1964-65 by renowned musician and songwriter Hans Poulsen. This all-acoustic four-piece group, which had no drummer, featured multi-instrumentalist Ted Baarda, violinist Ron Snellgrove and (for most of its short life) bassist Steve Dunstan.
The second and more pop-oriented version of the band -- with which Hans was only briefly involved -- was led by the equally renowned Keith Glass and featured guitarist John Pugh (both of whom went on to the better-known Cam-Pact), plus bassist Frank Lyons and series of drummers including Bob Lloyd, who is these days a noted composer of 'serious' music.
The first incarnation of 18CQ was a radical band by the standards of the day. This was a time when electric guitars were virtually compulsory, R&B-based pop was the dominant style, and almost every local band relied on covers of current British and American pop hits. But the members of 18CQ drew on a shared love of folk, jazz and what is now called "world music". Almost everything they performed and recorded was original material, and it was played on an exotic array of acoustic instruments including nylon-stringed guitar, bouzouki, autoharp, clarinet, violin and sarod!
The main reasons that the first lineup of 18CQ has been overlooked for so long is the lack of recordings. During 1964-65 the first version of the group privately recorded more than two dozen original tracks, almost all composed by Hans and/or Ted, but sadly both of these precious master tapes have since been lost. Fortunately, most of this early material was recorded again at other times and places during the band's short life -- they cut two Singles for Melbourne independent label East Records (although only one of which was released at the time) and they also recorded some of their material as soundtrack music for a short film by noted filmmaker Chris Lofven -- albeit with session player Barry Duggan subbing for an absent Ted Baarda. In 2002 Hans Poulsen and Ted Baarda were able to locate enough surviving material to compile a 22-track anthology CD of recordings by the original 18CQ.
Augmented for that session only by Hans Poulsen and violinist Ron Snellgrove, the second lineup cut four tracks for the Go!! label in 1966, which were released as Singles in 1966. Although the Singles are undoubtedly collectors' items today, happily, these four tracks were included on the CD Go!! Going!! Gone!!, one of a series of discs issued by the Canetoad label, which together comprise almost every track that the Go!! label produced during its two years in business.
First lineup, 1964-65
The original lineup of 18CQ was formed by a prodigiously talented young Melbourne musician called Hans Poulsen. A prolific songwriter from an early age, Hans reputedly amassed a stockpile of more than 300 original songs while he was still in his teens and he was also an accomplished multi-instrumentalist who could play a wide range of unusual instruments including guitar, piano, harpsichord, mandolin, recorder, autoharp, balalaika and bouzouki.
Hans had formed his first band, The Rimfires, in 1961 while he was in high school. He began hanging out at coffee lounges and dances around the Frankston / Mornington Peninsula area, playing a wide variety of music including traditional songs, folk music, hymns and Buddy Holly songs -- according to Ted Baarda, Hans could impersonate Holly better than anyone else he ever heard. He soon began playing his own music with other young musicians he met.
One of the first people he met was a another gifted young musician, violinist, Ron Snellgrove (b. Melbourne, 1943). Hans often went on surfing trips with his mates and one such trip he another young musician, Ted Baarda, which the formation for a new band, 18th Century Quartet. Theodore "Ted" Baarda (b. Haarlem, The Netherlands, 1945) was, like Hans, a budding songwriter and a talented multi-instrumentalist, who sang and played guitar, harmonica and clarinet. The young SEC apprentice from Yallourn was holidaying in Seaspray with his family when he met Hans. They hooked up at the local surf club one night for a jam and this soon developed into a spontaneous concert for over one hundred locals. The two young musos immediately bonded, discovering a shared passion for many forms of music including the Quintette of the Hot Club of France, which featured gypsy jazz legends Stephane Grapelli and Django Reinhardt.
Their meeting led to many weekends of jamming at the Poulsen home, followed by gigs at various seaside venues with the first performing lineup of 18CQ, which was Hans, Ted, Ron and their friend Dave Graham (acoustic bass). A friend from their church, George Crisp, volunteered to help the group and he lined up an audition with local label East Records, home to noted Australian folkie Trevor Lucas, who was later a member of Fairport Convention and Fotheringay, and married legendary Fairport lead singer Sandy Denny. 18CQ's audition session with East's house producer Bill Hawtin produced eleven tracks, all laid down in single takes. Apart from Hans' arrangement of the perennial campfire favourite "Kumbaya", the tape featured nine original songs -- four by Hans and five by Ted. Sadly, the master copy of the tape was later sent overseas and never returned, and it's doubtful that it survives, although most of the songs were later re-recorded.
Dave Graham could not commit full-time to the band, so 18CQ began looking for a new bassist. Around this time Ted Baarda attended a national intervarsity jazz convention in Sydney, where he met bassist, pianist, composer and "lovable eccentric" Steve Dunstan. Steve persuaded Ted to enter his original piece "Ghost Town" in the Original Tunes competition and it was declared the winner by judge Don Burrows. Dunstan went on to became a pioneer of electronic music in Australia -- he worked with Barry Conyngham, Keith Humble and Nicolas Lyon, and his piano piece "Svend's Tune" won the original tunes category at the Hobart Intervarsity Jazz Convention in 1968. In 1971 he contributed the opening sound collage for the classic Company Caine LP A Product Of A Broken Reality. Dunstan disappeared in the mid-1980s; it's thought that he may have commtted suicide, but his body has never been found, so his fate remains unknown.
Soon after returning from his success in Sydney, Ted introduced the other members of 18CQ to Steve, who enthusiastically accepted the offer to take Dave Graham's place as bassist. East then decided to re-recorded two of the songs from the original audition tape as the group's debut single, which was released on 7 July 1964. The A-side "The World Goes On" was written by Hans; the B-side "I'm Gonna Treat You Good" was written and sung by Ted Baarda. The single received limited airplay on 3DB and some country stations, and it was given a very favourable write-up by David Johnstone of Listener-In/TV magazine. It managed to sell 1000 copies -- no mean feat considering it was the first single on a small label by a virtually unknown experimental group -- and they began to build up a following around Melbourne, playing at dances, coffee lounges and college and university functions. Two more tracks were recorded for a planned second single, featuring the songs "Somewhere Along The Line" (by Ted) and "Antionette" (by Hans). Unfortunately, the first of a series of disputes between between Ted and Hans caused a temporary split in the band, the label lost interest and the single was never released.
After patching up their differences, the group continued performing, and things began to look up again in early 1965, when they snagged an appearance on Johnny Chester's Teen Scene on ABC-TV. Another break came when Ted met rising young filmmaker Chris Lofven, who was looking for a band to record original music for three short films he had recently completed. Chris -- who was also a childhood friend of the Conway brothers (of Captain Matchbox fame) -- had been making films since he was a teenager. He also went on to play in Cam-Pact, worked on and made a cameo appearance in The Adventures of Barry Mackenzie, created the classic film clips for Spectrum's "I'll Be Gone" and Daddy Cool's "Eagle Rock", and directed the cult Aussie road movie Oz, among a host of other remarkable achievements.
The group convened at Fred Schepisi's Cinesound film studio to rehearse and compile the soundtrack music, and Ted believes there is a slim chance that this tape might survive somewhere.The legendary Bill Armstrong, who was then working at Melbourne's Telefil Studios (just prior to the establishment of his own famous independent studio) offered to re-record the music to improve the sound quality. At this point -- much to Ted Baarda's later regret -- Poulsen's "artistic temperament" caused another meltdown. Hans was supposed to bring Ted to the studio, but he failed to pick him up and reportedly threw a tantrum at the studio, claiming that Ted was "unreliable". He replaced him for the session with flautist Barry Duggan. The unfortunate Ted could only assume that the session had been postponed -- he had no phone or car -- and he didn't find out what had happened until Steve Dunstan arrived the next day to berate him for not turning up!
Despite this setback, Ted continued to pursue a tantalising connection in, of all places, Argentina. An old friend of his family's, Salomon Rosenthal, lived in the capital, Buenos Aires, and he expressed an interest in the band's music. Ted sent a copy of the group's single to Rosenthal, who passed it on to connections in the local music scene and it was apparently given airplay on the local Radio El Mundo and won a prize for the most original record! As a result of this, a local promoter in Buenos Aires then offered to pay travel and accomodation expenses tfor a four-week tour. Unfortunately (according to Ted) the temperamental Hans refused to take part in the negotiations and the promoter eventually withdrew his offer. Compounding his frustration, Ted later found out that the single had been copied and released by an Argentinian pirate label, and that it sold moderately well and gained further airplay on Radio El Mundo. The original 18CQ gigged intermittently through the rest of 1965 but in early 1966 a new lineup was created, with only Hans Poulsen remaining from the original group.
Second Lineup, 1966-67
In January 1966 promoter Ian Oshlak approached Hans and Ted to play some duo gigs in Melbourne, Rosebud and soon after Lorne and soon after he unveiled his plan to launch a new pop-oriented 'electrified' version of 18CQ, dubbing its style "Baroque Rock". To fill out the quartet, Oshlak had lined up two young musos he knew, Keith Glass and John Pugh. Steve Dunstan and Ron Snellgrove were not invited to be part of the new group, and Ted Baarda elected not to continue without them, but he and Hans reunited for a short time after Hans left 18CQ and they briefly worked together again a couple of years later.
Prior to joining 18CQ, Keith Glass had been a member of Melbourne beat band The Rising Sons. Essentially a bunch of high school mates, that group had run its course by the start of 1966, although it had been an important experience for Keith and his friends. Another important outcome was that The Rising Sons became friends with the members of The Pink Finks -- beginning of a lasting friendship between Keith and Ross Wilson -- when they shared a residency with them at the Bluebeat, a 'Mod' venue in the Melbourne suburb of Rosebud which Oshlak ran, and which led to Oshlak briefly managing both bands. When the Rising Sons fizzled out, Keith sought a new musical venture.
"By the end of 1965, it was pretty
obvious I needed to cast around further afield than schoolboy
chums for band members. The Rising Sons had been a fun introduction to
a world of teen mania and broken recording
promises — hell, I was still only a teenager myself. In that
group I'd basically run everything, sang and played
lead guitar, wrote and picked all the songs. I was looking for some
solid support or contributions from others to move
ahead. I'd also flunked out of Law at Melbourne Uni but managed to
resuscitate my Commonwealth Scholagsubip enrolling in
a new design course at RMIT, thus maintaining a valuable source of
income and keeping out of any possible involvement in
the draft, should my number come up, which it didn't."
"Once again Ian Oshlak played a part by arranging a get together with John Pugh, at that time lead singer with The Roadrunners who I knew reasonably well and Hans Poulsen, who neither of us knew at all. Ian's plan was to put together a band to play Hans' songs, appropriating a name Hans had already used and in fact recorded under, The 18th Century Quartet."
"The original members included another prolific songwriter (still around today) Ted Baarda and the enigmatic Steve Dunstan on acoustic bass, plus an unknown (to me) violinist (Ron Snellgrove). They had recorded on the local East label a custom record called "The World Goes On" -- well, that was the title of Hans' side, with Ted writing and singing lead on the flip "I'm Gonna Treat You Good". There was a rumour this, with a percussive Latin rhythm, had become a hit in South America!"
"Ian's plan was to launch a new line-up of this band on the world stage as a totally original unit, the like of which had not yet been seen, playing a type of music someone dubbed 'Baroque Rock'. His mistake really, was to involve John and I in this because we were far too opinionated and square pegs in a round hole anyway. Nevertheless over many nights we got together with Hans and thrashed out a repertoire."
"I'll say right away that at that time Hans was well on the way to becoming one of the finest pop writers in the world, with a list of great, still to this day unheard songs. The man himself however was a walking contradiction -- a gentle, sensitive soul with huge phobias, fears and depressions. Plus he really didn’t differentiate between his classics and crap (the way most writers don’t). He was hard to handle with no discipline for playing in a band and the difficulty of amplifying gut-string guitar and bazouki, which were his main instruments. There were many weird and wonderful nights at Hans' space in the imposing old mansion of 'Labassa' in Caulfield, at that time a decaying splendour and subdivided into studio apartments but since restored to full 19th Century glory by The National Trust."
"After some weeks 'secret' rehearsals with John, Hans and myself, Ian formalised the managerial relationship in conjunction with his uncle Hyram and together they injected some funds to complete the group line-up with bass player Frank Lyons (who came from Sydney and that's all I know) and a passing parade of drummers (it was a quartet so they were 'extra' members) which included future Cam-Pact Bob Lloyd (aka Bob Tregilgus), former Rising Son Dennis 'Fred' Forster and present Tamworth legend Randall Wilson -- who I never realised was even in the band for a time until he casually mentioned it to me at one of the annual festivals many years later."
"We were measured for tailor made double-breasted pinstripe suits, a photographer followed our every move, publicity campaigns were set in place, secret gigs arranged but through it all, Frank never found enough money to purchase a top (G) string for his bass, so he played with three, and played bloody great as our four recorded sides will attest ..."
"We put together around forty original songs, just about all composed by Hans with a handful from John and myself. John played violin, autoharp and guitar, Hans his bouzouki, guitar and other stringed instruments, and I just stuck to guitar. We all sang and had rehearsed the material pretty thoroughly. It was uncompromising in its originality and totally sideways from the rhythm-driven adenoidal beat stuff around at the time. The closest equivalent was The Lovin' Spoonful or The Modern Folk Quartet (but we hadn't heard the latter). Unfortunately dance and disco promoters had no idea what we were doing. We auditioned for a residency at the Show Go Disco on the Esplanade in St Kilda and got the job. However when we did the gig the promoter suddenly realised that all our songs were totally unfamiliar to anyone and that was a "no go". We were sacked after the first night of a month-long engagement."
"Ian kept pushing us into places we were unsuitable for, which wasn't really his fault as there weren't any for which we were suitable, so slowly by necessity we started to add a rock element at least to close the performances on. The teenaged audience needed to scream and after half an hour of Hans' really good songs we had totally lost 'em. A couple of R&B ravers, which came naturally to John and I, at least got us outta there and paid by the promoter."
"It was finally decided (Hans would) stay home and write for us and join in studio recording (if it ever came) and we'd go out and do it live."
"Hans was losing control of himself and his own group. To us he also looked and acted so unhip. We kept suggesting he try some kinky wire frame glasses a la John Sebastian and Roger (nee Jim) McGuinn and some funkier clothes (the suits were largely ditched) to no avail ... of course a few years later he was the "happy" (and hitbound) little hippy."
"It was finally decided he'd stay home and write for us and join in studio recording (if it ever came) and we'd go out and do it live. At that point the band did start to work more and we added some covers although John's insistence on doing the full version of Dylan's "Desolation Row" was perhaps not a real good commercial move!"
"We entered Hoadley's "Battle Of The Sounds" and although we didn't win, Ron Tudor saw the potential in the band and signed us to Go!!, which was the hipper imprint of Astor Records. The stipulation was we must record Hans' song "Rachael" which we had done in the competition. (According to Ted Baarda, the poverty-stricken Pouslen sold the rights to the song to Ian Oshlak for $25).By that stage we saw ourselves as having an existence without Hans and agreed, so long as the other tracks recorded could be ours."
The producer was Peter Robinson of The Strangers and it turned out he actually liked our other songs, two written by me and one by John so a date was set at Armstrong’s Studio and Hans would join us for "Rachael". With Roger Savage engineering we put down the four tracks in the double-quick time of half a day. They were our first two (and indeed only) releases. First up, naturally was "Rachael" with the flip John's Dylanesque "Distant Relative" which gave Ron some worries with a line about "mainlining" but he let it pass given the free word association nonsensical nature of the song."
" "Rachael" was well received at radio and made the Melbourne charts almost immediately. Great we thought, we'll be on the GO!! TV show post haste. No dice because it was a "rock" show and we were a "folk rock" band. With that exposure denied it died in other states. We did pick up a Kommotion appearance or two but the disc was off the charts by then.
"One other recording opportunity came our way when BEA recording studio owner Monty Maisels got us in to do the soundtrack to a half hour film doco on the Melbourne pop scene, directed by Peter Lamb. It was based on the pseudo teen lifestyle investigations of Go-Set writer Doug Panther and in best Dylan-influenced style was called Approximately Panther. It is a true document of its time, with some hysterical and revealing footage of people such as model Jenny Ham, perennial scene stealer Adrian Rawlins, the ravings of an anonymous Melbourne disco ligger, some popstars of the time, shots of The Thumping Tum (Running, Jumping, Standing Still are performing) and the window of Brash's in Elizabeth Street in 1965 with funny-looking guitars priced in pre-decimal currency even! We did incidental music and I also composed a song for the closing credits loosely based on "Keep On Running" (now I hear it again)."
"We kept working and waiting for the next disc with my two songs on it, Peter Robinson had raved over the A-side "Am I A Lover" -- he sang a nice high harmony on it and I had high hopes it would do well, waltz time and all."
"We were drifting away from our managerial manufacturers even thought the talk was still of overseas conquests and fame. Really both John and I were itchy to play the blues/R&B music that appealed to us the most and little by little we introduced that to the 18CQ."
"Finally single two came out and raised not an iota of interest. There seemed little point in carrying on. We did however, and split from Ian and his uncle, changed the group's name in a last splutter, introduced a new multi-instrumentalist into the line-up in the form of Julius Colman and played everything from folkie stuff to Tamla-Motown!"
"The jig was up, the last date was in Anglesea on January 21st 1967. We'd even done "Carols By Candlelight" at the Myer Music Bowl before a huge crowd just a month earlier which provided a bit of closure, the first "pop" band ever on the event."
After 18CQ broke up Keith and John went on to the first lineup of CamPact, with whom he recorded a dynamic, Who-styled remake of "Drawing Room". After CamPact, Keith joined the cast of Hair (1969-70), formed the pioneering country-rock band Sundown later in 1970, then opened one of Australia's first import record stores, Archie & Jughead, in the early 70s. In the late '70s he established the famous Missing Link shop and label, which issued early sides by The Birthday Party and The Go Betweens, among many other ventures such as tour promotion, and a number of custom labels he set up with the renowned David "Dr Pepper" Pepperell. These days Keith is a respected singer-songwriter in the country field and he also writes for Rhythms magazine. In late 2006 he participated in a Cam-Pact reunion, marking the first time the group had played together in more than 30 years.
After being elbowed out of 18CQ in early 1966, a disheartened Hans Poulsen hooked up with Ted Baarda and they began playing as a duo again, performing at Melbourne venues like Frank Traynor's and the Outpost Inn, occasionally joined by either Steve Dunstan or Ron Snellgrove. Hans and Ted also began compiling a stack of new material which they taped at home on a two-track recorder. Once edited together, they took the 16-song master reel to Crest Records in Melbourne, who pressed up a custom 12" LP which Hans and Ted called The Big Deal. Ted Baarda meanwhile resumed contact with his family friend in Buenos Aires. Hoping to rekindle the interest of the Argentine promoter they had talked with in 1964, they sent the sample LP over. It didn't lead to another tour offer, but it ended up being copied by a local pirate label and getting airplay there.
The Argentina connection ended when Salomon Rosenthal died in late 1966 and regrettably the tapes Hans and Ted made in this period later went missing -- Ted Baarda unwisely loaned the master tape of The Big Deal to a friend, who lost it. Ted also loaned another tape with copies of some of the songs to The Twilights, and sadly it too was lost, although not before Twilights producer David Mackay heard it and selected the Baarda-Poulsen song "Lucky Man" for inclusion on the Twilights' first album.
Ted Baarda went on to form another band, At Large, in late 1966. Hans meanwhile met a young singer called Johnny Farnham at Dandenong Town Hall and their friendship led to Hans' first successes as a songwriter, with Johnny later recording two of Hans' songs, "Jamie" and "Rose-coloured Glasses" and Hans was signed up by Ron Tudor, who had formed his own independent production company, June Productions, and a new publishing company, Fable Music. In July 1968, Hans and Ted joined with bassist Rick Van Dam as The Hans Poulsen Trio, to provide entertainment on a two-month Pacific cruise on the Sitmar liner "Fairsea". On their return to Melbourne they recorded two tracks ("Coming Home Late Again" and "Au revoir, Noumea") at Armstrong's Studios, which they performed on the 0-10 network pop show Uptight. Hans apparently tried to convince engineer Roger Savage to overdub Ron Snellgrove's violin onto the tracks for a projected single, but at this point Ron Tudor invoked Hans' contract and the plans for an 18CQ reunion were reluctantly abandoned.
Hans Poulsen enjoyed considerable success over the next few years. He scored a national Top 10 single with "Boom Sha La La Lo" in 1970, and he was also very successful career as a songwriter, penning songs for Zoot, The Fourmulya and Russell Morris -- Hans' "It's Only A Matter of Time" was selected as the B-side of Russell's 1969 chart-topper "The Real Thing". In the early 1970s three of his songs were recorded by The New Seekers and in the mid-1980s he contributed several songs to the British musical Time, which were recorded by Leo Sayer, Ashford & Simpson, Stevie Wonder, Julian Lennon and Cliff Richard. For more information on Hans' solo career, please see our article on Hans Poulsen.
Hans, Ted Baarda and Ron Snellgrove were reunited in the early 1990s after Hans suffered a devastating stroke, They've remained in touch and in 2002 they put together an anthology of original 18CQ material, compiled from surviving recordings made between 1963 and 1968.
"The World Goes On" / "I'm Gonna Treat You Good"
(East EA 5005)
Produced by Bill Hawtin
"Somewhere Along The Line" / "Antoinette"
"Rachael" / "Distant Relative"
"Am I A Lover?" / "Drawing Room"
recordings produced by Peter
Engineered by Roger Savage
Recorded at Armstrong's Studios, Melbourne, 1966
All four Go!! tracks included on the Canetoad compilation GO!! Going!, Gone! The GO!! Recordings Vol. 3 (Canetoad CTCD-021).
"Coming Home Late Again" / "Au revoir, Noumea" (unreleased)
Recorded at Armstrong's Studios, Melbourne
Engineered by Roger Savage
It's New! It's 18CQ! (CD)
"18CQ Theme" (Baarda-Snellgrove)
"Come As You Are" (Pouslen)
"I'm Gonna Treat You Good" (Baarda)
"The World Goes On" (Poulsen)
"Japanese Village" (Baarda-Poulsen)
"Ghost Town" (Baarda)
"Mi Mujer Se Fue" (Baarda-Poulsen)
"I Will never See You Anymore" (Baarda)
"18CQ Fugue" (Poulsen-Snellgrove)
"On the road to Dorrigo" (Dunstan)
"You Love Me Anyhow" (Baarda)
"If The Sun Shone Blue" (Poulsen)
Walk Fast Through The Alleys of Harlem" (Baarda-Poulsen)
"Lucky Man" (Baarda-Poulsen)
"Didn't You Know?" (Baarda-Poulsen)
"Prelude To Peace" (Poulsen)
"I Don't Wanna Sing Without You Anymore" (Baarda-Poulsen)
"The Spiral" (Baarda-Dunstan)
Tiptoe Exit" (Dunstan)
References / Links
"Eighteenth Century Quartet" webpage
"A Life In Music" (Part 2)
Rhythms Magazine, June 2001
Australian Encyclopedia of Rock & Pop (Allen & Unwin, 1999)
Special thanks and acknowledgements to Ted Baarda and Keith Glass.